Iridium Communications Inc.
Iridium Communications Inc. (Form: 10-Q, Received: 10/26/2017 07:04:12)


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
 
 
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended September 30, 2017
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-33963  
 
Iridium Communications Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
DELAWARE
 
26-1344998
(State of incorporation)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
1750 Tysons Boulevard, Suite 1400, McLean, Virginia
 
22102
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip code)
703-287-7400
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):  
Large accelerated filer
x
 
 
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ☐    No   ☒
The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding as of October 23, 2017 was 97,970,911.
 




IRIDIUM COMMUNICATIONS INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Item No.
  
 
  
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Financial Statements
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  2.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  3.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  1A.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  2.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  3.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  5.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM  6.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


2



PART I.
Iridium Communications Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
 
 
September 30, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
 
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
Assets
 
 

 
 

Current assets:
 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
330,061

 
$
371,167

Marketable securities
 
20,300

 
39,328

Accounts receivable, net
 
61,032

 
57,373

Inventory
 
17,531

 
18,204

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
 
23,840

 
30,698

Total current assets
 
452,764

 
516,770

Property and equipment, net
 
3,170,074

 
2,813,084

Restricted cash
 
102,061

 
113,139

Other assets
 
9,307

 
10,836

Intangible assets, net
 
50,383

 
45,796

Total assets
 
$
3,784,589

 
$
3,499,625

Liabilities and stockholders' equity
 
 

 
 

Current liabilities:
 
 

 
 

Accounts payable
 
$
54,973

 
$
11,131

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
 
31,867

 
23,840

Interest payable
 
36,157

 
14,136

Deferred revenue
 
40,048

 
34,087

Total current liabilities
 
163,045

 
83,194

Accrued satellite operations and maintenance expense, net
 
 

 
 

of current portion
 

 
13,138

Credit facility, net
 
1,695,832

 
1,657,145

Deferred income tax liabilities, net
 
400,462

 
361,656

Deferred revenue, net of current portion
 
43,956

 
36,417

Other long-term liabilities
 
32,331

 
4,317

Total liabilities
 
2,335,626

 
2,155,867

 
 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies
 


 


 
 
 
 
 
Stockholders' equity:
 
 

 
 

Series A preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 1,000 shares authorized,
 
 

 
 

issued and outstanding
 

 

Series B preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 500 shares
 
 

 
 

authorized, issued and outstanding
 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 300,000 shares authorized, 97,957
 
 

 
 

and 95,879 shares issued and outstanding, respectively
 
98

 
96

Additional paid-in capital
 
1,075,535

 
1,060,311

Retained earnings
 
376,916

 
288,797

Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
 
(3,586
)
 
(5,446
)
Total stockholders' equity
 
1,448,963

 
1,343,758

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
 
$
3,784,589

 
$
3,499,625

See notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

3



Iridium Communications Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income
(In thousands, except per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
 
 
Three Months Ended
September 30,
 
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue:
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
 
Services
 
$
89,902

 
$
87,316

 
$
258,298

 
$
250,625

Subscriber equipment
 
21,784

 
19,900

 
57,742

 
57,822

Engineering and support services
 
4,861

 
5,578

 
16,537

 
17,744

Total revenue
 
116,547

 
112,794

 
332,577

 
326,191

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

and amortization)
 
20,883

 
15,936

 
59,209

 
48,287

Cost of subscriber equipment
 
12,186

 
11,476

 
33,158

 
33,798

Research and development
 
3,981

 
5,038

 
10,222

 
11,610

Selling, general and administrative
 
18,471

 
18,767

 
58,099

 
60,133

Depreciation and amortization
 
22,944

 
11,809

 
56,652

 
37,588

Total operating expenses
 
78,465

 
63,026

 
217,340

 
191,416

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gain on Boeing transaction
 

 

 
14,189

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
 
38,082

 
49,768

 
129,426

 
134,775

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Interest income, net
 
1,246

 
700

 
2,911

 
2,258

Undrawn credit facility fees
 

 
(305
)
 
(25
)
 
(1,176
)
Other income (expense), net
 
(20
)
 
39

 
(138
)
 
359

Total other income, net
 
1,226

 
434

 
2,748

 
1,441

Income before income taxes
 
39,308

 
50,202

 
132,174

 
136,216

Provision for income taxes
 
(10,055
)
 
(18,647
)
 
(40,195
)
 
(49,287
)
Net income
 
29,253

 
31,555

 
91,979

 
86,929

Series A preferred stock dividends, declared and paid
 

 
1,750

 
1,750

 
5,250

Series B preferred stock dividends, declared and paid
 

 
2,109

 
2,109

 
6,327

Series A preferred stock dividends, undeclared
 
1,750

 

 
3,500

 

Series B preferred stock dividends, undeclared
 
2,109

 

 
4,218

 

Net income attributable to common stockholders
 
$
25,394

 
$
27,696

 
$
80,402

 
$
75,352

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding - basic
 
98,290

 
96,067

 
97,716

 
95,890

Weighted average shares outstanding - diluted
 
127,188

 
123,690

 
126,839

 
123,408

Net income attributable to common stockholders per share - basic
 
$
0.26

 
$
0.29

 
$
0.82

 
$
0.79

Net income attributable to common stockholders per share - diluted
 
$
0.23

 
$
0.26

 
$
0.72

 
$
0.70

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Comprehensive income:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Net income
 
$
29,253

 
$
31,555

 
$
91,979

 
$
86,929

Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax
 
1,059

 
222

 
1,858

 
3,157

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities, net of tax
 
8

 
(108
)
 
1

 
159

Comprehensive income
 
$
30,320

 
$
31,669

 
$
93,838

 
$
90,245

 
See notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

4



Iridium Communications Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2017
 
2016
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 

 
 

Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
203,218

 
$
164,559

 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 

 
 

Capital expenditures
 
(290,712
)
 
(231,791
)
Purchases of marketable securities
 
(4,991
)
 
(19,865
)
Sales and maturities of marketable securities
 
23,903

 
170,290

Net cash used in investing activities
 
(271,800
)
 
(81,366
)
 
 
 
 
 
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 

 
 

Borrowings under the Credit Facility
 
22,207

 
148,050

Payment of deferred financing fees
 
(3,412
)
 
(9,608
)
Restricted cash refunds (deposits), net
 
11,079

 
(21,989
)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options
 
3,127

 
390

Tax payment upon settlement of stock awards
 
(1,805
)
 
(606
)
Payment of Series A preferred stock dividends
 
(1,750
)
 
(5,250
)
Payment of Series B preferred stock dividends
 
(2,109
)
 
(6,327
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
 
27,337

 
104,660

 
 
 
 
 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
 
139

 
488

 
 
 
 
 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
 
(41,106
)
 
188,341

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period
 
371,167

 
185,665

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
 
$
330,061

 
$
374,006

 
 
 
 
 
Supplemental cash flow information:
 
 

 
 

Interest paid
 
$
42,458

 
$
10,985

Income taxes paid, net
 
$
1,664

 
$
1,002

 
 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing activities:
 
 

 
 

Property and equipment received but not paid for yet
 
$
80,138

 
$
31,018

Interest capitalized but not paid
 
$
36,157

 
$
33,110

Capitalized amortization of deferred financing costs
 
$
18,992

 
$
19,569

Capitalized paid-in-kind interest
 
$
253

 
$
25,136

Capitalized stock-based compensation
 
$
2,227

 
$
1,926

 
 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash financing activities:
 
 

 
 

Dividends accrued on Series A preferred stock
 
$
292

 
$
292

Dividends accrued on Series B preferred stock
 
$
352

 
$
352

See notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

5



Iridium Communications Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
1. Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
Iridium Communications Inc. (the “Company”) has prepared its condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of (i) the Company, (ii) its wholly owned subsidiaries, and (iii) all less than wholly owned subsidiaries that the Company controls. All material intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
In the opinion of management, the condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments that the Company considers necessary for the fair presentation of its results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods covered, and of the financial position of the Company at the date of the interim condensed consolidated balance sheet. The operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the entire year. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to instructions, rules and regulations prescribed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 , as filed with the SEC on February 23, 2017.
2. Significant Accounting Policies
Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In March 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-9,  Compensation – Stock Compensation, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-9”). ASU 2016-9 addresses multiple changes that are primarily focused on income taxes and the presentation of taxes related to stock compensation, but also provides an option for two methods to account for forfeitures. The Company applied the new guidance effective January 1, 2017, as required. The requirements resulting from the adoption of ASU 2016-9 will be accounted for on a prospective basis.
The Company made an accounting policy election to continue estimating the number of awards that are expected to be forfeited, consistent with the Company’s prior practice.
The Company excluded the excess tax benefits and deficiencies component from the treasury stock method in the diluted earnings per share calculation. The change had an immaterial impact on the Company’s reported diluted earnings per share.
The Company recorded current excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies as income tax benefit (expense) in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The change resulted in an excess tax expense of $0.1 million for the three months ended September 30, 2017 and excess tax benefit of $0.9 million recorded in the provision for income taxes for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 .
The Company will present excess tax benefits as an operating activity on the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows rather than as a financing activity. Prior periods have not been adjusted.
There were no additional impacts on the Company’s financial statements, resulting from the adoption of ASU 2016-9 that required a retrospective or modified retrospective approach.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11,  Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (“ASU 2015-11”). ASU 2015-11 requires that inventory within the scope of the guidance be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Inventory measured using last-in, first-out and retail inventory method are excluded from this new guidance. When evidence exists that the net realizable value of inventory is less than its cost, the Company will recognize the difference as a loss in earnings in the period the measurement occurs. This ASU replaces the concept of market with the single measurement of net realizable value and is intended to create efficiencies for preparers and more closely aligns U.S. GAAP with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The Company applied the new guidance prospectively effective January 1, 2017, as required. The adoption had an immaterial impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets, the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income, and the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows as of and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 .
Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted 
In May 2014, the FASB and the International Accounting Standards Board jointly issued a comprehensive new revenue recognition standard, ASU No. 2014-9,  Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-9”), that will supersede nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. Under the new standard, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services and is recognized in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity

6



expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The FASB has issued several amendments to the standard including clarification on accounting for licenses of intellectual property, identifying performance obligations, and most recently, technical corrections on the interpretation of the new guidance. In July 2015, the FASB voted to defer the effective date of ASU 2014-9 for public entities to be effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption would be permitted no earlier than the original effective date beginning after December 15, 2016. ASU 2014-9 becomes effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 and the Company anticipates adopting the standard using the full retrospective method, which will result in the presentation of prior reporting periods in a manner consistent with 2018. The cumulative effect of the standard will be recognized at the earliest reporting period shown.
The Company has established a project team in order to analyze the effect of the standard on its contracts by reviewing its current accounting policies and practices to identify potential differences which would result from applying the requirements of the new standard to its revenue contracts. The Company has aggregated its contracts into homogeneous revenue streams and is continuing to assess all potential effects of the standard. The Company anticipates a change to the recognition pattern of its prepaid revenue from expiration.  The Company currently recognizes unused prepaid revenue at the date the right to access the prepaid service has expired.  Under the new standard, the Company will estimate the expected revenue that will expire unused and recognize this revenue over the prepaid term. The Company is currently evaluating the impact on revenue from estimating prepaid revenue upon expiration and changing the term over which this revenue is recognized. The Company has not yet completed its review of the effect of this guidance on all revenue streams and, as a result, other changes from current U.S. GAAP may be identified.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-2, Leases (“ASU 2016-2”). ASU 2016-2 requires lessees to put most leases on their balance sheets but recognize expenses on their income statements in a manner similar to current accounting. This ASU is effective for public business entities in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those years. Early adoption is permitted and reporting organizations are required to use a modified retrospective approach for leases that exist or are entered into after the beginning of the earliest comparative period in the financial statements. The Company is currently evaluating the effect ASU 2016-2 may have on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, but a lease liability and related right-of-use asset will be recognized for operating lease arrangements where the Company is the lessee.  
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”). ASU 2016-18 will reduce diversity in the classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash in the statement of cash flows. This ASU is effective for public business entities in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period, and reporting organizations are required to use a retrospective transition method to each period presented. The Company is currently evaluating the effect ASU 2016-18 may have on its condensed consolidated statements of cash flows and related disclosures, but recognizing transfers between restricted and unrestricted cash accounts will not be reported as a cash flow.
Warranty Expense
The Company provides the first end-user purchaser of its subscriber equipment a warranty for one to five years from the date of purchase by such first end-user, depending on the product. The Company maintains a warranty reserve based on historical experience of warranty costs and expected occurrences of warranty claims on equipment. Costs associated with warranties, including equipment replacement, repairs, freight and program administration, are recorded as cost of subscriber equipment in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company evaluates assets and liabilities subject to fair value measurements on a recurring and non-recurring basis to determine the appropriate level to classify them for each reporting period. This determination requires significant judgments to be made by management of the Company. The instruments identified as subject to fair value measurements on a recurring basis are cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities. Fair value is the price that would be received from the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability assuming an orderly transaction in the most advantageous market at the measurement date. U.S. GAAP establishes a hierarchical disclosure framework which prioritizes and ranks the level of observability of inputs used in measuring fair value. The fair value hierarchy consists of the following tiers:

Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2, defined as observable inputs other than Level 1 prices such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and

7



Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
The carrying values of short-term financial instruments (primarily cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued expenses and other current liabilities) approximate their fair values because of their short-term nature. The fair value of the Company’s investments in money market funds approximates its carrying value; such instruments are classified as Level 1 and are included in cash and cash equivalents in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. The fair value of the Company’s investments in commercial paper and short-term U.S. agency securities with original maturities of less than ninety days approximates their carrying value; such instruments are classified as Level 2 and are included in cash and cash equivalents in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.
The fair value of the Company’s investments in fixed-income debt securities and commercial paper with original maturities of greater than ninety days are obtained using similar investments traded on active securities exchanges and are classified as Level 2 and are included in marketable securities in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. For fixed income securities that do not have quoted prices in active markets, the Company uses third-party vendors to price its debt securities resulting in classification as Level 2.
Depreciation and Amortization
The Company calculates depreciation expense using the straight line method and evaluates the appropriateness of the useful life used on a quarterly basis or as events occur that require additional assessment. Throughout 2017 and 2016, the Company updated its estimate of the first-generation satellites’ remaining useful lives based on the continued refinement of the launch schedule, health of the first-generation constellation, and deployment plan for the Company’s next-generation satellite constellation (“Iridium NEXT”). As a result, the estimated useful lives of the satellites within the first-generation constellation were extended and are consistent with the expected deployment of Iridium NEXT. The Company will continue to evaluate the useful lives of its first-generation satellites on an ongoing basis through the full deployment of Iridium NEXT, which is expected to occur in 2018. The changes in estimate will also have an effect on future periods through the deployment of Iridium NEXT. The $11.1 million and $19.1 million increases in depreciation and amortization expense for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 , respectively, compared to the same periods of the prior year are primarily attributable to the addition of new assets, including Iridium NEXT satellites placed into service during the nine -month period ended September 30, 2017 and assets related to the Russian gateway completed at the end of 2016, partially offset by the continued refinement in the estimated useful lives of the first-generation satellites.
3. Cash and Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash and Marketable Securities
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of ninety days or less to be cash equivalents. These investments, along with cash deposited in institutional money market funds, commercial paper, regular interest bearing and non-interest bearing depository accounts, are classified as cash and cash equivalents in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet. The following table summarizes the Company’s cash and cash equivalents:
 
 
September 30, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
 
Recurring Fair
Value Measurement
 
 
(in thousands)
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents:
 
 

 
 

 
 
Cash
 
$
140,957

 
$
102,194

 
 
Money market funds
 
181,524

 
266,478

 
Level 1
Commercial paper
 
7,580

 
2,495

 
Level 2
Total cash and cash equivalents
 
$
330,061

 
$
371,167

 
 
Restricted Cash
The Company is required to maintain a minimum cash reserve for debt service related to its $1.8 billion loan facility (as amended to date, the “Credit Facility”) (see Note 4). As of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016 , the Company’s restricted cash balance, which includes a minimum cash reserve for debt service related to the Credit Facility and the interest earned on these amounts, was $102.1 million and $113.1 million , respectively.
Marketable Securities
Marketable securities consist of fixed-income debt securities and commercial paper with an original maturity in excess of ninety days. These investments are classified as available-for-sale and are included in marketable securities within current assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. All investments are carried at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses, net of taxes, are reported as a component of other comprehensive income or loss. The specific identification method

8



is used to determine the cost basis of the marketable securities sold. There were no material realized gains or losses on the sale of marketable securities for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 . The Company regularly monitors and evaluates the fair value of its investments to identify other-than-temporary declines in value. The Company determined that the decline in fair value of its investments is temporary at September 30, 2017 as the Company does not intend to sell these securities, and it is not likely that the Company will be required to sell the securities before the recovery of their amortized cost basis.
The following tables summarize the Company’s marketable securities:
 
 
As of September 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Recurring Fair
Value Measurement
 
 
(in thousands)
Fixed-income debt securities
 
$
18,042

 
$
17

 
$
(5
)
 
$
18,054

 
Level 2
U.S. treasury notes
 
2,249

 

 
(3
)
 
2,246

 
Level 2
Total marketable securities
 
$
20,291

 
$
17

 
$
(8
)
 
$
20,300

 
 
 
 
As of December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Gross
Unrealized Gains
 
Gross
Unrealized Losses
 
Estimated
Fair Value
 
Recurring Fair
Value Measurement
 
 
(in thousands)
Fixed-income debt securities
 
$
30,037

 
$
14

 
$
(11
)
 
$
30,040

 
Level 2
U.S. treasury notes
 
9,283

 
7

 
(2
)
 
9,288

 
Level 2
Total marketable securities
 
$
39,320

 
$
21

 
$
(13
)
 
$
39,328

 
 
The following table presents the contractual maturities of the Company’s marketable securities:
 
 
As of September 30, 2017
 
As of December 31, 2016
 
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Fair
Value
 
Amortized
Cost
 
Fair
Value
 
 
(in thousands)
Mature within one year
 
$
20,041

 
$
20,051

 
$
32,776

 
$
32,788

Mature after one year and within three years
 
250

 
249

 
6,544

 
6,540

Total
 
$
20,291

 
$
20,300

 
$
39,320

 
$
39,328

4. Commitments and Contingencies
Commitments
Thales
In June 2010, the Company executed a primarily fixed-price full-scale development contract (the “FSD”) with Thales Alenia Space France (“Thales”) for the design and build of satellites for Iridium NEXT. The total price under the FSD is $2.3 billion , and the Company expects payment obligations under the FSD to extend through 2018, subject to payments using bills of exchange as described below. As of September 30, 2017 , the Company had made aggregate payments of $1.9 billion to Thales, of which $1.5 billion was financed from borrowings under the Credit Facility, and which were capitalized as construction in progress within property and equipment, net in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet. The Credit Facility was fully drawn in February 2017. Prior to the Credit Facility being fully drawn, the Company used the Credit Facility to pay 85% of each invoice received from Thales under the FSD, with the remaining 15% funded from cash on hand. The Company currently pays 100% of each invoice received from Thales from cash and marketable securities on hand or the issuance of a bill of exchange, a French law instrument of indebtedness similar to a promissory note.
On July 26, 2017, the Company entered into Amendments 28 and 29 to its FSD contract.  The Company signed Amendment 28 on May 18, 2017, but effectiveness was conditioned on the effectiveness of Amendment 29.  Amendment 28 revised the liquidated damages and other cost provisions regarding delays to the Iridium NEXT program.  Under Amendment 28, the Company agreed with Thales that liquidated damages for Thales production delays to date would be $30.0 million , with this amount to be used only to offset costs otherwise payable by the Company to Thales under the FSD with respect to past and future delays to the launch schedule from causes other than Thales, at agreed upon rates. Any portion of the $30.0 million remaining at the completion of the launch campaign will be forgiven.  Liquidated damages owed to the Company from any future delays caused by Thales will remain payable in cash. Similarly, costs payable by the Company to Thales for non-Thales

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delays exceeding the $30.0 million will be payable in cash.  Unless there are substantial future delays to the Iridium NEXT program, the Company expects this arrangement will result in no cash payments due to delays by either party.
Amendment 29 provides for the deferral of approximately $100.0 million in milestone payments by the Company under the FSD for milestones that the Company expects to be completed in 2017 and 2018.  Under Amendment 29, the Company will make these milestone payments using bills of exchange due in March 2019, with interest at a specified base rate (LIBOR or SWAP, depending on the term of the bill of exchange) plus 1.4% , with the bills of exchange guaranteed by Bpifrance Assurance Export S.A.S. (“BPIAE”).  As of September 30, 2017, the milestone payments related to the Thales bills of exchange totaled an aggregate amount of $28.9 million , including $0.9 million of deferred financing costs. The net balance of $28.0 million is recorded as long-term debt within other long-term liabilities in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet. Amendment 29 also requires that the Company pay Thales for the BPIAE premium on the guarantee in the amount of $1.0 million in cash at signing (which was recorded as original issue discount) plus 1.62% , to be paid by bills of exchange on the same terms as stated above, on each bill of exchange to be issued.
The Company’s obligations to Thales that are currently scheduled to be paid, including the long-term bills of exchange, during the 12 months ending September 30, 2018 and 2019 are in the amounts of $247.2 million and $105.6 million , respectively, exclusive of fees and related interest. The timing of the Company’s obligations to Thales is based on current expectations regarding Thales’s manufacturing schedule and the targeted Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (“SpaceX”) launch schedule to complete the Iridium NEXT constellation in 2018.
SpaceX
In March 2010, the Company entered into an agreement with SpaceX to secure SpaceX as the primary launch services provider for Iridium NEXT (as amended to date, the “SpaceX Agreement”). The total price under the SpaceX Agreement for seven launches and a reflight option in the event of a launch failure is $453.1 million . The SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket is configured to carry ten Iridium NEXT satellites to orbit for each of these seven launches. In November 2016, the Company entered into an agreement for an additional launch with SpaceX to launch five additional satellites and share the launch services with GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (“GFZ”). The total price under this additional agreement with SpaceX for the shared launch is $67.9 million . GFZ will pay Iridium $31.8 million to share the launch services to launch NASA’s two Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Follow-On satellites. As of September 30, 2017 , the Company had made aggregate payments of $447.4 million to SpaceX, which were capitalized as construction in progress within property and equipment, net in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet. Additionally, the Company received $28.6 million from GFZ as of September 30, 2017 . The Company’s obligations to SpaceX that are currently scheduled to be paid during the 12 months ending September 30, 2018 and 2019 are in the amounts of $63.4 million and $10.2 million , respectively. The timing of the Company’s obligations to SpaceX is based on the targeted SpaceX launch schedule to complete the Iridium NEXT constellation in 2018.
Kosmotras
In June 2011, the Company entered into an agreement with International Space Company Kosmotras (“Kosmotras”) as a supplemental launch service provider for Iridium NEXT (the “Kosmotras Agreement”). In June 2013, the Company exercised an option for one launch to carry two Iridium NEXT satellites. If the Company does not exercise any additional options, the total cost under the contract including this single launch will be $51.8 million . As of September 30, 2017 , the Company had made aggregate payments of $36.8 million to Kosmotras, which were capitalized as construction in progress within property and equipment, net in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet. In June 2015, the Company agreed with Kosmotras to replace the remaining options with a new set of options to purchase up to six dedicated launches. Kosmotras has to date been unable to obtain permission to launch the Company’s satellites. If permission is not obtained, the Company may be unable to recover the amounts already paid to Kosmotras. The Company’s obligations to Kosmotras that are currently scheduled to be paid during the 12 months ending September 30, 2019 are $15.0 million , based on the earliest date the Company may include Kosmotras in its launch schedule.
Iridium NEXT Launch and In-Orbit Insurance
The Credit Facility requires the Company to obtain insurance covering the launch and first 12 months of operation of the Iridium NEXT satellites. The launch and in-orbit insurance the Company has obtained contains elements, consistent with the terms of the Credit Facility, of self-insurance and deductibles, providing reimbursement only after a specified number of satellite failures. As a result, a failure of one or more of the Company’s NEXT satellites, or the occurrence of equipment failures and other related problems, could constitute an uninsured loss or require the payment of additional premiums and could harm the Company’s financial condition. Furthermore, launch and in-orbit insurance does not cover lost revenue. The total premium for the Company’s current launch and in-orbit insurance is $118.2 million ; as of September 30, 2017 , the Company had made aggregate premium payments of $63.5 million . The Company’s insurance premium obligations to be paid during the 12 months ending September 30, 2018 are $54.7 million . The timing of the majority of the Company's obligations to the insurers is based on the targeted SpaceX launch schedule to complete the Iridium NEXT constellation in 2018.

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Credit Facility
The Company estimates the aggregate costs associated with the design, build and launch of Iridium NEXT and related infrastructure upgrades through 2018 to be approximately $3 billion . In October 2010, the Company entered into a $1.8 billion credit facility with a syndicate of bank lenders (as amended to date, the “Credit Facility”). As of September 30, 2017 , the Company reported an aggregate total of $1.8 billion in borrowings, including $104.2 million of deferred financing costs, for a net balance of $1,695.8 million in borrowings from the Credit Facility in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet. Pursuant to the Credit Facility, the Company maintains a minimum cash reserve for debt repayment in a debt service reserve account (the “DSRA”). As of September 30, 2017 , the minimum required cash reserve balance was $102.0 million , which is classified as restricted cash in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet.
On July 26, 2017, the Company amended and restated the Credit Facility by a supplemental agreement.  The Credit Facility delays $54.0 million of the Company’s DSRA contributions previously scheduled to be made in 2017, refunded to the Company $33.0 million in contributions made to date, and provides for a refund to the Company of an additional $11.0 million in contributions made to date in the event that the Company’s projected Available Cash (as defined in the Credit Facility) falls below $35.0 million on a three-month forward-looking basis through March 2019.  The delay and refunds are effective through the end of March 2019, at which time the DSRA must be fully funded to the previously agreed amount of $189.0 million .  The Credit Facility also requires that the Company establish a new restricted account to receive payment of hosting fees from the Company's primary hosted payload customer, Aireon LLC.  Up to $50.0 million of hosting fees received from Aireon will be placed in the restricted account, which the Company could access should the Company’s projected Available Cash fall below the $35.0 million three-month forward-looking Available Cash threshold described above. Aireon hosting fees received in excess of $50.0 million will be used to replenish the DSRA and to secure the payment of the Thales bills of exchange described above. 
The Credit Facility does not require the Company to raise additional equity, but it does require the Company to temporarily suspend dividend payments on its Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock for five quarters.  As previously announced, in anticipation of this requirement, the Company began this suspension with the dividend payments payable on June 15, 2017.
Prior to the Credit Facility being fully drawn, the Company paid interest on the outstanding principal balance under the Credit Facility on a semi-annual basis in April and October through a combination of a cash payment and a deemed additional loan. The Credit Facility was fully drawn in February 2017, and beginning in April 2017, interest is being paid in cash.  Interest costs incurred under the Credit Facility were $21.9 million and $64.7 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 , respectively, and $19.8 million and $57.0 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 , respectively. Scheduled semi-annual principal repayments will begin on March 31, 2018. During this repayment period, interest will be paid on the same date as the principal repayments. All interest costs incurred related to the Credit Facility have been capitalized during the construction period of the Iridium NEXT assets.  
The funding plan for the $3 billion in costs includes the substantial majority of the funds drawn under the Credit Facility, together with cash and marketable securities on hand, and internally generated cash flows, including contracted cash flows from hosted payloads.
There can be no assurance that internally generated cash flows, including those from hosting and data services on the Iridium NEXT satellites, will meet the Company’s current expectations. If sufficient cash flows are not generated, or if the cost of implementing Iridium NEXT or the other elements of the Company’s business plan are higher than anticipated, the Company may need further external funding. The ability to obtain additional funding may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including global economic conditions, and such funding may not be available on reasonable terms or at all. If the Company is not able to secure such funding in a timely manner, the ability to maintain the network, to design, build and launch Iridium NEXT and related ground infrastructure, products and services, and to pursue additional growth opportunities will be impaired, and the Company would likely need to delay some elements of the Iridium NEXT development. The Company’s liquidity and the ability to fund its liquidity requirements also depend on the Company’s future financial performance, which is subject to general economic, financial, regulatory and other factors that are beyond the Company’s control.
The Company believes that its liquidity sources will provide sufficient funds for it to meet its liquidity requirements for at least the next 12 months .
Contingencies
From time to time, in the normal course of business, the Company is party to various pending claims and lawsuits. The Company is not aware of any such actions that it would expect to have a material adverse impact on its business, financial results or financial condition.

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5. Boeing Insourcing Agreement
On November 28, 2016, the Company entered into an Insourcing Agreement with Boeing for the Company to hire, effective January 3, 2017, the majority of Boeing employees and third party contractors who were responsible for the operations and maintenance of the Company’s satellite constellation and ground infrastructure. Pursuant to the Insourcing Agreement, the Company agreed to pay Boeing $5.5 million , of which $2.75 million was paid in December 2016 and the remaining $2.75 million will be paid in December 2017. Concurrent with the hiring of the assembled workforce on January 3, 2017, the Company and Boeing terminated their previous Operations and Maintenance Agreement (“O&M Agreement”) and Iridium NEXT Support Service Agreement and entered into a new Development Services Agreement (“DSA”) with a $6.0 million minimum annual commitment through 2021 . As a result of these agreement terminations, Boeing no longer has a unilateral right to commence the de-orbit of the Company’s first-generation satellites. The assembled workforce was recorded as a definite-lived intangible asset in January 2017 and is being amortized over an estimated useful life of 7 years . Additionally, by terminating the O&M Agreement, the Company recognized a $14.2 million gain from the derecognition of a purchase accounting liability created from GHL Acquisition Corp.’s acquisition of Iridium in 2009 related to the fair value of the contractual arrangement with Boeing as of that date and the remainder of a credit resulting from the July 2010 Boeing O&M contract amendment.
6. Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation at fair value. The fair value of stock options is determined at the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) is equal to the closing price of the underlying common stock on the grant date. The fair value of an award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service or performance period and is classified in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income in a manner consistent with the classification of the recipient’s compensation. The expected vesting of the Company’s performance-based RSUs is based upon the likelihood that the Company achieves the defined performance goals. The level of achievement of performance goals, if any, is determined by the compensation committee of the Company’s Board of Directors. Stock-based awards to non-employee consultants are expensed at their fair value as services are provided according to the terms of their agreements and are classified in selling, general and administrative expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income.
In May 2015, the Company’s stockholders approved the 2015 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2015 Plan”) to provide stock-based awards, including nonqualified stock options, incentive stock options, restricted stock and other equity securities, as incentives and rewards for employees, consultants and non-employee directors. In May 2017, the Company’s stockholders amended and restated the 2015 Plan (the “Amended 2015 Plan”), primarily to increase the number of shares available under the plan by 8.0 million shares.  All grants in June 2017 or later were made under the Amended 2015 Plan, which continues to permit the grant of stock-based awards, including nonqualified stock options, incentive stock options, restricted stock and other equity securities to employees, consultants and non-employee directors.  Members of the Company’s board of directors have received a portion of their annual compensation in the form of equity awards under the 2015 Plan. An aggregate amount of approximately 96,000 and 126,000 RSUs were granted in January 2017 and 2016, respectively. These RSUs vest in full on the first anniversary of the grant date. The estimated aggregate grant date fair value of the RSUs granted to the directors in January 2017 and 2016 was $1.0 million for each year.
During the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 , the Company granted approximately 209,000 and 249,000 stock options, respectively, to its employees, with an estimated aggregate grant date fair value of $0.9 million for each year. Additionally, during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, the Company granted 964,000 and 573,000 service-based RSUs, respectively, to its employees, with an estimated aggregate grant date fair value of $8.5 million and $4.0 million , respectively. Employee stock options and service-based RSUs generally vest over a four -year service period, with 25% vesting on the first anniversary of the grant date and the remainder vesting ratably on a quarterly basis thereafter.
In March 2017 and 2016, the Company awarded approximately 1,190,000 and 1,335,000 performance-based RSUs to the Company’s executives and employees (the “Bonus RSUs”). The Company records stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service period related to performance-based RSUs when it is considered probable that the performance conditions will be met. Vesting of the March 2017 and 2016 Bonus RSUs is and was dependent upon the Company’s achievement of defined performance goals over a one-year period (fiscal year 2017 for the March 2017 Bonus RSUs and fiscal year 2016 for the March 2016 Bonus RSUs). Management believes it is probable that certain of the March 2017 Bonus RSUs will vest. The level of achievement, if any, of performance goals will be determined by the compensation committee of the Company’s Board of Directors and, if such goals are achieved, the March 2017 Bonus RSUs will vest, subject to continued employment, through March 2018. Certain of the March 2016 Bonus RSUs vested in March 2017. The estimated aggregate grant date fair value of the March 2017 and 2016 Bonus RSUs was $10.5 million and $9.4 million , respectively.
Additionally, in March 2017 and 2016, the Company awarded approximately 173,000 and 119,000 performance-based RSUs, respectively, to the Company’s executives (the “Performance RSUs”).  Vesting of the 2017 and 2016 Performance RSUs is and was dependent upon the Company’s achievement of defined performance goals over a two -year period (fiscal years 2017 and 2018 for the Performance RSUs granted in 2017 and fiscal years 2016 and 2017 for the Performance RSUs granted in 2016). Management believes it is probable that certain of the Performance RSUs will vest. The number of Performance RSUs that will

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ultimately vest may range from 0 % to 150% of the original grant based on the level of achievement of the performance goals. If the Company achieves the performance goals, 50% of the Performance RSUs will vest in March in the year after the performance period ends and the remaining 50% will vest in March of the third year after grant, in each case subject to the executive’s continued service as of the vesting date. The estimated aggregate grant date fair value of the Performance RSUs was $1.5 million for the 2017 grants and $0.8 million for the 2016 grants.
In June 2017 and June 2016, the Company granted approximately 8,000 and 35,000 RSUs, respectively, to non-employee consultants. The RSUs are generally subject to service-based vesting. The RSUs will vest 50% in June of the year after the grant and the remaining 50% will vest quarterly thereafter. The estimated aggregate grant date fair value of the RSUs granted to non-employee consultants during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 was $0.1 million and $0.3 million , respectively.
7. Equity Transactions and Instruments
Preferred Stock
The Company is authorized to issue 2.0 million shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share. As described below, the Company issued 1.0 million shares of preferred stock in the fourth quarter of 2012 and $0.5 million shares of preferred stock in the second quarter of 2014. The remaining 0.5 million authorized shares of preferred stock remain undesignated and unissued as of September 30, 2017 .
Series A Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock
In the fourth quarter of 2012, the Company issued 1.0 million shares of its 7.00% Series A Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series A Preferred Stock”) in a private offering. The Company received proceeds of $96.5 million from the sale of the Series A Preferred Stock, net of the aggregate $3.5 million in initial purchaser discount and offering costs. The net proceeds of this offering were used to partially fund the construction and deployment of Iridium NEXT and for other general corporate purposes.
Holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive cumulative cash dividends at a rate of 7.00% per annum of the $100 liquidation preference per share (equivalent to an annual rate of $7.00 per share). Dividends are payable quarterly in arrears on each March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15. The Series A Preferred Stock does not have a stated maturity date and is not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions. The Series A Preferred Stock ranks senior to the Company’s common stock and pari passu with the Company’s 6.75% Series B Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series B Preferred Stock”) with respect to dividend rights and rights upon the Company’s liquidation, dissolution or winding-up. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights except for limited voting rights if the Company fails to pay dividends for six or more quarterly periods (whether or not consecutive) and in other specified circumstances. Holders of Series A Preferred Stock may convert some or all of their outstanding Series A Preferred Stock at an initial conversion rate of 10.6022 shares of common stock per $100 liquidation preference, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $9.43 per share of common stock (subject to adjustment in certain events).
During the three months ended June 30, 2017, the Company began a five-quarter deferral of dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock. No cash dividends were declared or paid during the three months ended September 30, 2017 , and no dividends were accrued. During the nine months ended September 30, 2017 , the Company paid cash dividends of $1.8 million to holders of the Series A Preferred Stock. During the three and nine months September 30, 2016 , the Company paid cash dividends of $1.8 million and $5.3 million , respectively, to holders of the Series A Preferred Stock.
On or after October 3, 2017, the Company may, at its option, convert some or all of the Series A Preferred Stock into the number of shares of common stock that are issuable at the then-applicable conversion rate, subject to specified conditions, including a stock price of at least $12.26 per share and payment of the accrued dividends. The holders of Series A Preferred Stock had a special right to convert some or all of the Series A Preferred Stock into shares of common stock, which expired on October 3, 2017. Any suspended dividends are required to be paid prior to conversion by the Company.
Series B Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock
In May 2014, the Company issued 500,000 shares of its Series B Preferred Stock in an underwritten public offering at a price to the public of $250 per share. The purchase price received by the Company, equal to $242.50 per share, reflected an underwriting discount of $7.50 per share. The Company received proceeds of $120.8 million from the sale of the Series B Preferred Stock, net of the $3.8 million underwriter discount and $0.4 million of offering costs. The net proceeds of this offering are being used to partially fund the construction and deployment of Iridium NEXT and for other general corporate purposes.
As of September 30, 2017 , there were 499,955 shares of Series B Preferred Stock outstanding. Holders of Series B Preferred Stock are entitled to receive cumulative cash dividends at a rate of 6.75% per annum of the $250 liquidation preference per share (equivalent to an annual rate of $16.875 per share). Dividends are payable quarterly in arrears on each March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15. The Series B Preferred Stock does not have a stated maturity date and is not subject to any

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sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions. The Series B Preferred Stock ranks senior to the Company’s common stock and pari passu with respect to the Company’s Series A Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights and rights upon the Company’s voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding-up. Holders of Series B Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights except for limited voting rights if the Company fails to pay dividends for six or more quarterly periods (whether or not consecutive) and in other specified circumstances. Holders of Series B Preferred Stock may convert some or all of their outstanding Series B Preferred Stock at an initial conversion rate of 33.456 shares of common stock per $250 liquidation preference, which is equivalent to an initial conversion price of approximately $7.47 per share of common stock (subject to adjustment in certain events).
During the three months ended June 30, 2017, the Company began a five-quarter deferral of dividends on the Series B Preferred Stock. No cash dividends were declared or paid during the three months ended September 30, 2017 , and no dividends were accrued. During the nine months ended September 30, 2017 , the Company paid cash dividends of $2.1 million to holders of the Series B Preferred Stock. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 , the Company paid cash dividends of $2.1 million and $6.3 million , respectively, to holders of the Series B Preferred Stock.
On or after May 15, 2019, the Company may, at its option, convert some or all of the Series B Preferred Stock into the number of shares of common stock that are issuable at the then-applicable conversion rate, subject to specified conditions. In the event of certain specified fundamental changes, holders of the Series B Preferred Stock will have the right to convert some or all of their shares of Series B Preferred Stock into the greater of (i) a number of shares of the Company’s common stock as subject to adjustment plus the make-whole premium, if any, and (ii) a number of shares of the Company’s common stock equal to the lesser of (a) the liquidation preference divided by the market value of the Company’s common stock on the effective date of such fundamental change and (b) 81.9672 (subject to adjustment). In certain circumstances, the Company may elect to cash settle any conversions in connection with a fundamental change. Any suspended dividends are required to be paid prior to conversion by the Company.
8. Net Income Per Share
The Company calculates basic net income per share by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share takes into account the effect of potential dilutive common shares when the effect is dilutive. The effect of potential dilutive common shares, including common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding stock options, is computed using the treasury stock method. The effect of potential dilutive common shares from the conversion of outstanding convertible preferred securities is computed using the as-if converted method at the stated conversion rate. The RSUs granted to members of the Company’s board of directors contain non-forfeitable rights to dividends and therefore are considered to be participating securities in periods of net income. As a result, the calculation of basic and diluted net income per share excludes net income attributable to the unvested RSUs granted to the Company’s board of directors from the numerator and excludes the impact of the unvested RSUs granted to the Company’s board of directors from the denominator.

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The computations of basic and diluted net income per share are as follows:
 
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Numerator:
 
 
 
 
Net income attributable to common stockholders
(numerator for basic net income per share)
 
$
25,394

 
$
27,696

Net income allocated to participating securities
 
(25
)
 
(36
)
Numerator for basic net income per share
 
25,369

 
27,660

Dividends on Series A Preferred Stock, paid and unpaid
 
1,750

 
1,750

Dividends on Series B Preferred Stock, paid and unpaid
 
2,109

 
2,109

Numerator for diluted net income per share
 
$
29,228

 
$
31,519

 
 
 
 
 
Denominator:
 
 
 
 
Denominator for basic net income per share - weighted
   average outstanding common shares
 
98,290

 
96,067

Dilutive effect of stock options
 
1,515

 
293

Dilutive effect of contingently issuable shares
 
54

 

Dilutive effect of Series A Preferred Stock
 
10,602

 
10,602

Dilutive effect of Series B Preferred Stock
 
16,727

 
16,728

Denominator for diluted net income per share
 
127,188

 
123,690

Net income per share attributable to common
   stockholders - basic
 
$
0.26

 
$
0.29

Net income per share attributable to common
   stockholders - diluted
 
$
0.23

 
$
0.26

For the three months ended September 30, 2017 , $1.8 million and $2.1 million in cumulative unpaid dividends to holders of the Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, respectively, were not declared or accrued as a result of all cash dividends being suspended in connection with the amendments described in Note 4, but such amounts were deducted to arrive at net income attributable to common stockholders.  For the three months ended September 30, 2017 , 1.7 million unvested non-performance-based RSUs were excluded from the computation of basic net income per share and not included in the computation of diluted net income per share, as the effect would be anti-dilutive, and 0.1 million unvested performance-based RSUs were not included in the computation of basic and diluted net income per share, as certain performance criteria have not been satisfied.
For the three months ended September 30, 2016 , options to purchase 2.8 million shares of common stock were not included in the computation of diluted net income per share, as the effect would be anti-dilutive. For the three months ended September 30, 2016 , 1.4 million unvested non-performance based RSUs were not included in the computation of basic net income per share and excluded from the computation of diluted net income per share, as the effect would be anti-dilutive, and 1.7 million unvested performance-based RSUs were not included in the computation of basic and diluted net income per share, as certain performance criteria have not been satisfied.
 

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Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
2017
 
2016
 
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Numerator:
 
 

 
 

Net income attributable to common stockholders
(numerator for basic net income per share)
 
$
80,402

 
$
75,352

Net income allocated to participating securities
 
(79
)
 
(97
)
Numerator for basic net income per share
 
80,323

 
75,255

Dividends on Series A Preferred Stock, paid and unpaid
 
5,250

 
5,250

Dividends on Series B Preferred Stock, paid and unpaid
 
6,327

 
6,327

Numerator for diluted net income per share
 
$
91,900

 
$
86,832

 
 
 
 
 
Denominator:
 
 

 
 

Denominator for basic net income per share - weighted
   average outstanding common shares
 
97,716

 
95,890

Dilutive effect of stock options
 
1,407

 
188

Dilutive effect of contingently issuable shares
 
387

 

Dilutive effect of Series A Preferred Stock
 
10,602

 
10,602

Dilutive effect of Series B Preferred Stock
 
16,727

 
16,728

Denominator for diluted net income per share
 
126,839

 
123,408

 
 
 
 
 
Net income per share attributable to common
   stockholders - basic
 
$
0.82

 
$
0.79

Net income per share attributable to common
   stockholders - diluted
 
$
0.72

 
$
0.70

For the nine months ended September 30, 2017 , $3.5 million and $4.2 million in cumulative unpaid dividends to holders of the Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, respectively, were not declared or accrued as a result of all cash dividends being suspended in connection with the amendments described in Note 4, but such amounts were deducted to arrive at net income attributable to common stockholders.  For the nine months ended September 30, 2017 , options to purchase 0.1 million shares of common stock were not included in the computation of diluted net income per share, as the effect would be anti-dilutive. For the nine months ended September 30, 2017 , 1.6 million unvested non-performance-based RSUs were excluded from the computation of basic net income per share and not included in the computation of diluted net income per share, as the effect would be anti-dilutive, and 0.4 million unvested performance-based RSUs were not included in the computation of basic and diluted net income per share, as certain performance criteria have not been satisfied.
For the nine months ended September 30, 2016 , options to purchase 4.0 million shares of common stock were not included in the computation of diluted net income per share, as the effect would be anti-dilutive. For the nine months ended September 30, 2016 , 1.4 million unvested non-performance based RSUs were excluded from the computation of basic net income per share and not included in the computation of diluted net income per share, as the effect would be anti-dilutive, and 1.5 million unvested performance-based RSUs were not included in the computation of basic and diluted net income per share, as certain performance criteria have not been satisfied.

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ITEM 2.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
You should read the following discussion along with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 , filed on February 23, 2017 with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as well as our condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-Q.
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. For this purpose, any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements include those that express plans, anticipation, intent, contingencies, goals, targets or future development or otherwise are not statements of historical fact. Without limiting the foregoing, the words “believe,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and projections about future events, and they are subject to risks and uncertainties, known and unknown, that could cause actual results and developments to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such statements. The important factors described under the caption “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 filed on February 23, 2017, could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by forward-looking statements made herein. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Overview of Our Business
We are engaged primarily in providing mobile voice and data communications services using a constellation of orbiting satellites. We are the second largest provider of satellite-based mobile voice and data communications services based on revenue, and the only commercial provider of communications services offering true global coverage. Our satellite network provides communications services to regions of the world where wireless or wireline networks do not exist or are limited, including remote land areas, open oceans, airways, the polar regions, and regions where the telecommunications infrastructure has been affected by political conflicts or natural disasters.
We provide voice and data communications services to businesses, the U.S. and foreign governments, non-governmental organizations and consumers via our satellite network, which has an architecture of 66 in-orbit satellites with in-orbit spares and related ground infrastructure. We utilize an interlinked mesh architecture to route traffic across our satellite constellation using radio frequency crosslinks between satellites. This unique architecture minimizes the need for local ground facilities to support the constellation, which facilitates the global reach of our services and allows us to offer services in countries and regions where we have no physical presence.
We sell our products and services to commercial end-users through a wholesale distribution network, encompassing approximately 70 service providers, approximately 200 value-added resellers, or VARs, and approximately 70 value-added manufacturers, or VAMs, which create and sell technology that uses the Iridium ® network either directly to the end user or indirectly through other service providers, VARs or dealers. These distributors often integrate our products and services with other complementary hardware and software and have developed a broad suite of applications using our products and services to target specific lines of business. We expect that demand for our services will increase as more applications are developed and deployed that utilize our technology.
At September 30, 2017 , we had over 949,000 billable subscribers worldwide, representing an increase of 13% from approximately 838,000 billable subscribers at September 30, 2016 . We have a diverse customer base, with end users in the following lines of business: land-based handset; machine-to-machine, or M2M; maritime; aviation; and government.
We recognize revenue from both the sale of equipment and the provision of services. We expect a higher proportion of our future revenue will be derived from service revenue, including revenue from hosting and data services. Revenues from providing voice and data service historically have generated higher gross margins than sales of subscriber equipment.
We began launching our new Iridium NEXT satellite constellation in January 2017, which we expect to complete in 2018, and which will replace our first-generation satellite network with the same interlinked mesh architecture of our first-generation constellation, with 66 operational satellites, as well as in-orbit and ground spares. Of the 30 Iridium NEXT satellites we have launched so far in 2017, 13 have been placed into service, seven are being drifted to adjacent planes, and 10 are undergoing on-orbit testing.
We have contracted with Thales Alenia Space France, or Thales, to construct the Iridium NEXT satellites, which are compatible with our first-generation constellation and current end-user equipment, so that as we launch Iridium NEXT satellites, we will replace the first-generation satellites in our constellation without affecting the service to our end users. We plan to deploy 75 satellites on seven dedicated Falcon 9 rockets and one shared Falcon 9 rocket launched by Space Exploration Technologies Corporation, or SpaceX.  We estimate the costs associated with the design, build and launch of Iridium NEXT and related ground infrastructure upgrades through 2018 to be approximately $3 billion. Our funding plan for these costs includes the substantial majority of the funds drawn under our $1.8 billion credit facility, or the Credit Facility, which was fully drawn as of February 2017, together with cash on hand and internally generated cash flows, including contracted cash flows from hosted payloads.

17



The Iridium NEXT constellation will also host the Aireon SM  system to provide a global air traffic surveillance service through a series of automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast, or ADS-B, receivers on the Iridium NEXT satellites. We formed Aireon LLC in 2011, with subsequent investments from the air navigation service providers, or ANSPs, of Canada, Italy, Denmark and Ireland, to develop and market this service.  Aireon has contracted to provide the service to our co-investors in Aireon, as well as NATS (En Route) PLC, the ANSP of the United Kingdom, and other ANSPs. Aireon also plans to offer the service to other customers worldwide, including the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, or FAA. Aireon has contracted to pay us a fee to host the ADS-B receivers on Iridium NEXT, and has begun paying us data service fees for the delivery of the air traffic surveillance data over the Iridium NEXT system on a per satellite basis, which will increase with the number of Iridium NEXT satellites placed into service. In addition, we have entered into an agreement with Harris Corporation, the manufacturer of the Aireon hosted payload, pursuant to which Harris pays us fees to allocate the remaining hosted payload capacity to its customers; Harris also pays us data service fees on behalf of these customers.
Recent Developments
Iridium NEXT
As described above, we have begun launching Iridium NEXT. As a result of delays in the original Iridium NEXT launch schedule, we updated the estimated useful lives of the current satellites and extended the lives to be consistent with the expected deployment of Iridium NEXT in 2018. We will continue to evaluate the useful lives of our current satellites through the full deployment of Iridium NEXT as the satellites are placed into service.
Our insurance program includes our ground spares and a prepaid relaunch right with SpaceX to self-insure a portion of our launch and in-orbit risks, as permitted under the Credit Facility. While we believe this has enabled us to obtain insurance at a substantially lower cost than would have been possible without the spares and relaunch right, if we use our spares to replace lost satellites, we will likely choose to purchase additional satellites to maintain a backup supply of spares. The cost of such additional spares is not included in the $3 billion estimated cost for the design, build and launch of Iridium NEXT and related infrastructure upgrades through 2018.
Amendments to Credit Facility and FSD
As described below under “Liquidity and Capital Resources,” on July 26, 2017, we amended and restated the Credit Facility by a supplemental agreement. As amended to date, the Credit Facility delays, until March 2019, $54.0 million in contributions that we were previously scheduled to make during 2017 to the debt service reserve account, or DSRA, that we are required to maintain under the Credit Facility, and we were refunded $33.0 million of the contributions to the DSRA that we have made to date.  In addition, in the event that our projected Available Cash (as defined in the Credit Facility) falls below $35.0 million on a three-month forward-looking basis between now and March 2019, we will receive a refund of an additional $11.0 million in contributions made to date.  The Credit Facility also requires that we establish a new restricted account to receive hosting fees from Aireon. The first $50.0 million in hosting fees from Aireon would be kept in the restricted account and we could access these funds in the event that we fall below the same $35.0 million three-month forward-looking Available Cash threshold through March 2019 described above.  Hosting fees from Aireon in excess of $50.0 million would be distributed pro rata to replenish the DSRA and to secure the payment of the bills of exchange to Thales described below.
The Credit Facility does not require us to raise additional equity but requires that we suspend the payment of dividends on our 7% Series A Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock and our 6.75% Series B Cumulative Perpetual Convertible Preferred Stock for five quarters.  As previously announced, in anticipation of this requirement, we began this suspension with the dividend payments payable on June 15, 2017. The Credit Facility also includes revised financial covenant levels to reflect changing business conditions.
Also on July 26, 2017, we entered into Amendments 28 and 29 to our Full Scale Development Contract with Thales Alenia Space France SAS, or Thales, for the Iridium NEXT System, which we refer to as the FSD.  We signed Amendment 28 on May 18, 2017, but effectiveness was conditioned on the effectiveness of Amendment 29.  Amendment 28 revised the liquidated damages and other cost provisions regarding delays to the Iridium NEXT program.  Under Amendment 28, we agreed with Thales that liquidated damages for Thales production delays to date would be set at $30.0 million, with this amount to be used only to offset costs otherwise payable by us to Thales under the FSD with respect to past and future delays to the launch schedule from causes other than Thales, at agreed upon rates.  Any portion of the $30.0 million remaining at the completion of the launch campaign will be forgiven.  Liquidated damages owed to us from any future delays caused by Thales would remain payable in cash.  Similarly, costs payable by us to Thales for non-Thales delays exceeding the $30.0 million would be payable in cash.  Unless there are substantial future delays to the Iridium NEXT program, we expect this arrangement will result in no cash payments by either party due to delays.
Amendment 29 provides for the deferral of approximately $100.0 million in milestone payments by us under the FSD for milestones that we expect to be completed in 2017 and 2018.  Under Amendment 29, we will make these milestone payments using bills of exchange due in March 2019, with interest at a specified base rate (LIBOR or SWAP, depending on the term of the bill of exchange) plus 1.4%, with the bills of exchange guaranteed by Bpifrance Assurance Export S.A.S., which we refer to as BPIAE.  Amendment 29 also required that we pay Thales for the BPIAE premium on the guarantee in the amount of $1.0

18



million in cash at signing plus 1.62%, to be paid by bills of exchange on the same terms as stated above, on each bill of exchange to be issued.
Material Trends and Uncertainties
Our industry and customer base has historically grown as a result of:
demand for remote and reliable mobile communications services;
increased demand for communications services by disaster and relief agencies, and emergency first responders;
a broad wholesale distribution network with access to diverse and geographically dispersed niche markets;
a growing number of new products and services and related applications;
improved data transmission speeds for mobile satellite service offerings;
regulatory mandates requiring the use of mobile satellite services;
a general reduction in prices of mobile satellite services and subscriber equipment; and
geographic market expansion through the ability to offer our services in additional countries.
Nonetheless, we face a number of challenges and uncertainties in operating our business, including:
our ability to continue to manufacture and launch Iridium NEXT and successfully transfer service from our first-generation satellites to our Iridium NEXT satellites;
our ability to develop new and innovative products and services for Iridium NEXT, including Iridium Certus SM ;
our ability to generate sufficient internal cash flows, including contracted cash flows from hosted payloads, to fund a portion of the remaining costs associated with Iridium NEXT and to support our ongoing business;
Aireon LLC’s ability to successfully deploy and market its space-based ADS-B global aviation monitoring service, which is carried as a hosted payload on the Iridium NEXT system;
Aireon’s ability to raise sufficient funds to pay hosting fees to us or our ability to seek alternative financing arrangements in the event that Aireon is unable to pay such hosting fees to us;
our ability to maintain the health, capacity, control and level of service of our first-generation satellites through the completion of Iridium NEXT;
changes in general economic, business and industry conditions, including the effects of currency exchange rates;
our reliance on a single primary commercial gateway and a primary satellite network operations center;
competition from other mobile satellite service providers and, to a lesser extent, from the expansion of terrestrial-based cellular phone systems and related pricing pressures;
market acceptance of our products;
regulatory requirements in existing and new geographic markets;
rapid and significant technological changes in the telecommunications industry;
reliance on our wholesale distribution network to market and sell our products, services and applications effectively;
reliance on single-source suppliers for the manufacture of most of our subscriber equipment and for some of the components required in the manufacture of our end-user subscriber equipment and our ability to purchase parts that are periodically subject to shortages resulting from surges in demand, natural disasters or other events; and
reliance on a few significant customers, particularly agencies of the U.S. government, for a substantial portion of our revenue, as a result of which the loss or decline in business with any of these customers may negatively impact our revenue, and risk of collectability of accounts receivable is more concentrated.

19



Comparison of Our Results of Operations for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2017 and 2016
 
 
Three Months Ended September 30,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
% of Total
 
 
 
% of Total
 
Change
($ in thousands)
 
2017
 
Revenue
 
2016
 
Revenue
 
Dollars
 
Percent
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Services
 
$
89,902

 
77
 %
 
$
87,316

 
77
 %
 
$
2,586

 
3
 %
Subscriber equipment
 
21,784

 
19
 %
 
19,900

 
18
 %
 
1,884

 
9
 %
Engineering and support services
 
4,861

 
4
 %
 
5,578

 
5
 %
 
(717
)
 
(13
)%
Total revenue
 
116,547

 
100
 %
 
112,794

 
100
 %
 
3,753

 
3
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
and amortization)
 
20,883

 
18
 %
 
15,936

 
14
 %
 
4,947

 
31
 %
Cost of subscriber equipment
 
12,186

 
10
 %
 
11,476

 
10
 %
 
710

 
6
 %
Research and development
 
3,981

 
3
 %
 
5,038

 
4
 %
 
(1,057
)
 
(21
)%
Selling, general and administrative
 
18,471

 
16
 %
 
18,767

 
17
 %
 
(296
)
 
(2
)%
Depreciation and amortization
 
22,944

 
20
 %
 
11,809

 
10
 %
 
11,135

 
94
 %
Total operating expenses
 
78,465

 
67
 %
 
63,026

 
55
 %
 
15,439

 
24
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
 
38,082

 
33
 %
 
49,768

 
45
 %
 
(11,686
)
 
(23
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income, net
 
1,246

 
1
 %
 
700

 
1
 %
 
546

 
78
 %
Undrawn credit facility fees
 

 
 %
 
(305
)
 
 %
 
305

 
(100
)%
Other income (expense), net
 
(20
)
 
 %
 
39

 
 %
 
(59
)
 
(151
)%
Total other income, net
 
1,226

 
1
 %
 
434

 
1
 %
 
792

 
182
 %
Income before income taxes
 
39,308

 
34
 %
 
50,202

 
46
 %
 
(10,894
)
 
(22
)%
Provision for income taxes
 
(10,055
)
 
(9
)%
 
(18,647
)
 
(17
)%
 
8,592

 
(46
)%
Net income
 
$
29,253

 
25
 %
 
$
31,555

 
29
 %
 
$
(2,302
)
 
(7
)%


20



Revenue
Commercial Service Revenue 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
September 30, 2017
 
September 30, 2016
 
Change
 
 
(Revenue in millions and subscribers in thousands)
 
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers  (1)
 
ARPU (2)
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers  (1)
 
ARPU (2)
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers
 
ARPU
Commercial voice and data
 
$
48.2

 
368

 
$
43

 
$
48.0

 
358

 
$
44

 
$
0.2

 
10

 
$
(1
)
Commercial M2M data
 
19.7

 
486

 
13

 
17.3

 
398

 
15

 
2.4

 
88

 
(2
)
Total Commercial
 
$
67.9

 
854

 
 
 
$
65.3

 
756

 
 
 
$
2.6

 
98

 
 
(1)
Billable subscriber numbers shown are at the end of the respective period.
(2)
Average monthly revenue per unit, or ARPU, is calculated by dividing revenue in the respective period by the average of the number of billable subscribers at the beginning of the period and the number of billable subscribers at the end of the period and then dividing the result by the number of months in the period. ARPU excludes revenue from our non-subscriber satellite, timing, and location service that was launched in the second quarter of 2016 and revenue from data fees collected as part of the hosted payload service that became available with Iridium NEXT in the first quarter of 2017.
For the three months ended September 30, 2017 , commercial voice and data revenue increased slightly from the prior year period primarily due to the increase in hosting and data services, offset by continued declines in telephony airtime usage.
We anticipate revenue from our hosting and data services to increase as more Iridium NEXT satellites are placed into service over the launch campaign, which is expected to be completed in 2018.  Hosting and data services for the three months ended September 30, 2017 were immaterial.
For the three months ended September 30, 2017 , commercial M2M data revenue increased $2.4 million, or 14%, from the prior year period primarily due to a 22% increase in commercial M2M data billable subscribers, partially offset by a decline in the related ARPU due to the growth in subscribers using lower data usage plans.
We anticipate continued growth in billable commercial subscribers for the remainder of 2017.
Government Service Revenue 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
 
September 30, 2017
 
September 30, 2016
 
Change
 
 
(Revenue in millions and subscribers in thousands)
 
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers  (1)
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers  (1)
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers
Government service revenue
 
$
22.0

 
95

 
$
22.0

 
82

 
$

 
13

(1)
Billable subscriber numbers shown are at the end of the respective period.
Government service revenues for the three months ended September 30, 2017 did not change from the prior year period as a result of the final contractual price increase having taken place in October 2015 under the Enhanced Mobile Satellite Services, or EMSS, contract with the U.S. government’s Defense Information Systems Agency. Under this contract, revenue is a fixed monthly amount and is not based on subscribers or usage, allowing an unlimited number of users access to existing services. The EMSS contract expires in October 2018, at which time pricing will be subject to renegotiation.
Subscriber Equipment Revenue
Subscriber equipment revenue increased $1.9 million, or 9%, for the three months ended September 30, 2017 compared to the prior year period. The increase was primarily due to higher handset sales concentrated in areas affected by recent hurricane activity.

21



Engineering and Support Service Revenue
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
 
 
 
September 30, 2017
 
September 30, 2016
 
Change
 
 
(Revenue in millions)
Government
 
$
4.1

 
$
4.9

 
$
(0.8
)
Commercial
 
0.8

 
0.7

 
0.1

Total
 
$
4.9

 
$
5.6

 
$
(0.7
)
Engineering and support service revenue decreased by $0.7 million, or 13%, for the three months ended September 30, 2017 compared to the prior year period primarily as a result of decreased revenue for a contract with the U.S. Department of Defense, or DoD, to adapt the Iridium Extreme ® handset for DoD applications, which is near completion.
Operating Expenses
Cost of Services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization) includes the cost of network engineering and operations staff, including contractors, software maintenance, product support services and cost of services for government and commercial engineering and support service revenue.
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization) increased $4.9 million, or 31%, for the three months ended September 30, 2017 from the prior year period, primarily as a result of insurance costs from Iridium NEXT satellites placed into service during 2017.
We expect our insurance expenses to increase as we place Iridium NEXT satellites into service throughout the launch campaign, which is expected to be complete in 2018.
Cost of Subscriber Equipment
Cost of subscriber equipment includes the direct costs of equipment sold, which consist of manufacturing costs, allocation of overhead, and warranty costs.
Cost of subscriber equipment increased by $0.7 million, or 6%, for the three months ended September 30, 2017 compared to the prior year period. This increase is primarily due to a higher volume of handset sales.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses decreased by $1.1 million, or 21%, for the three months ended September 30, 2017 compared to the prior year period due to decreased spend on Iridium NEXT projects.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses that are not directly attributable to the sale of services or products include sales and marketing costs as well as employee-related expenses (such as salaries, wages, and benefits), legal, finance, information technology, facilities, billing and customer care expenses.
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased by $0.3 million, or 2%, for the three months ended September 30, 2017 compared to the prior year period, primarily due to a decrease in employee-related expenses related to the reclassification of expenses associated with the Boeing Insourcing Agreement and a decrease in professional fees.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization expense increased by $11.1 million, or 94%, for the three months ended September 30, 2017 compared to the prior year period, primarily due to the addition of new assets, including Iridium NEXT satellites placed into service during 2017 and assets related to the Russian gateway completed at the end of 2016.
Provision for Income Taxes
For the three months ended September 30, 2017 , our income tax provision was $10.1 million, compared to $18.6 million for the prior year period.  The decrease in the income tax provision is primarily related to a decrease in our income before taxes as well as a decrease in our effective tax rate related to lower state taxes in the current year compared to the prior year. If our current estimates change in future periods, the impact on the deferred tax assets and liabilities may change correspondingly.

22



Net Income
Net income was $29.3 million for the three months ended September 30, 2017 , a decrease of $2.3 million from the prior year period. This decrease in net income was primarily driven by the increases in depreciation expense and insurance costs as described above, partially offset by the decrease in the provision for income taxes as described above. 
Comparison of Our Results of Operations for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2017 and 2016
 
 
Nine Months Ended September 30,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
% of Total
 
 
 
% of Total
 
Change
($ in thousands)
 
2017
 
Revenue
 
2016
 
Revenue
 
Dollars
 
Percent
Revenue:
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Services
 
$
258,298

 
78
 %
 
$
250,625

 
77
 %
 
$
7,673

 
3
 %
Subscriber equipment
 
57,742

 
17
 %
 
57,822

 
18
 %
 
(80
)
 
 %
Engineering and support services
 
16,537

 
5
 %
 
17,744

 
5
 %
 
(1,207
)
 
(7
)%
Total revenue
 
332,577

 
100
 %
 
326,191

 
100
 %
 
6,386

 
2
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

and amortization)
 
59,209

 
18
 %
 
48,287

 
15
 %
 
10,922

 
23
 %
Cost of subscriber equipment
 
33,158

 
10
 %
 
33,798

 
10
 %
 
(640
)
 
(2
)%
Research and development
 
10,222

 
3
 %
 
11,610

 
4
 %
 
(1,388
)
 
(12
)%
Selling, general and administrative
 
58,099

 
17
 %
 
60,133

 
18
 %
 
(2,034
)
 
(3
)%
Depreciation and amortization
 
56,652

 
17
 %
 
37,588

 
12
 %
 
19,064

 
51
 %
Total operating expenses
 
217,340

 
65
 %
 
191,416

 
59
 %
 
25,924

 
14
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gain on Boeing transaction
 
14,189

 
4
 %
 

 
 %
 
14,189

 
100
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating income
 
129,426

 
39
 %
 
134,775

 
41
 %
 
(5,349
)
 
(4
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other income (expense):
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Interest income, net
 
2,911

 
1
 %
 
2,258

 
1
 %
 
653

 
29
 %
Undrawn credit facility fees
 
(25
)
 
 %
 
(1,176
)
 
 %
 
1,151

 
(98
)%
Other income (expense), net
 
(138
)
 
 %
 
359

 
 %
 
(497
)
 
(138
)%
Total other income, net
 
2,748

 
1
 %
 
1,441

 
1
 %
 
1,307

 
91
 %
Income before income taxes
 
132,174

 
40
 %
 
136,216

 
42
 %
 
(4,042
)
 
(3
)%
Provision for income taxes
 
(40,195
)
 
(12
)%
 
(49,287
)
 
(15
)%
 
9,092

 
(18
)%
Net income
 
$
91,979

 
28
 %
 
$
86,929

 
27
 %
 
$
5,050

 
6
 %
 

23



Commercial Service Revenue
 
 
Nine Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
September 30, 2017
 
September 30, 2016
 
Change
 
 
(Revenue in millions and subscribers in thousands)
 
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers  (1)
 
ARPU  (2)
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers  (1)
 
ARPU  (2)
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers
 
ARPU
Commercial voice and data
 
$
136.3

 
368

 
$
41

 
$
135.8

 
358

 
$
42

 
$
0.5

 
10

 
$
(1
)
Commercial M2M data
 
56.0

 
486

 
13

 
48.8

 
398

 
14

 
7.2

 
88

 
(1
)
Total Commercial
 
$
192.3

 
854

 
 
 
$
184.6

 
756

 
 

 
$
7.7

 
98

 
 
(1)
Billable subscriber numbers shown are at the end of the respective period.
(2)
Average monthly revenue per unit, or ARPU, is calculated by dividing revenue in the respective period by the average of the number of billable subscribers at the beginning of the period and the number of billable subscribers at the end of the period and then dividing the result by the number of months in the period. ARPU excludes revenue from our non-subscriber satellite, timing, and location service that was launched in the second quarter of 2016 and revenue from data fees collected as part of the hosted payload service that became available with Iridium NEXT in the first quarter of 2017.
For the nine months ended September 30, 2017 , commercial voice and data revenue increased slightly compared to the prior year period primarily due to increases in hosting and data services and Iridium OpenPort ® services, partially offset by continued declines in telephony airtime usage.
We anticipate revenue from our hosting and data services to increase as more Iridium NEXT satellites are placed into service over the launch campaign, which is expected to be completed in 2018.  Hosting and data services for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 were immaterial.
For the nine months ended September 30, 2017 , commercial M2M data revenue increased $7.2 million, or 15%, from the prior year period primarily due to a 22% increase in commercial M2M data billable subscribers.
We anticipate continued growth in billable commercial subscribers for the remainder of 2017.
Government Service Revenue 
 
 
Nine Months Ended
 
 
 
 
 
 
September 30, 2017
 
September 30, 2016
 
Change
 
 
(Revenue in millions and subscribers in thousands)
 
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers  (1)
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers  (1)
 
Revenue
 
Billable
Subscribers
Government service revenue
 
$
66.0

 
95

 
$
66.0

 
82

 
$

 
13

(1)
Billable subscriber numbers shown are at the end of the respective period.
Government service revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 did not change from the prior year period as a result of the final contractual price increase having taken place in October 2015 under the EMSS contract as described above.
Engineering and Support Service Revenue
 
 
Nine Months Ended
 
 
 
 
September 30, 2017
 
September 30, 2016